The concept of neurotechnology involves the use of biological, mechanical and computer technologies for the study of the functioning of the nervous system and the treatment of neurological diseases.
Technological developments related to neuroscience have opened up the exploration of the biology of the human brain and the nervous system, highlighting its connections with behaviour.
The other branch of studies is aimed at the possible technological connections between the brain and computers, as well as in a perspective, between humans via computers.
Since the 1990s, the intensity of the development of neuroscience has led to the emergence of a serious and organic ethical reflection of the same, giving rise to the discipline of neuroethics.
Law has followed by, moving from exotic juxtaposition to necessary topic, because of the involvement of fundamental concepts such as free will and the monism/dualism of the individual.
Over the past two decades, neuroscientific studies (brain imaging ) and other new survey techniques have initiated the challenge for understanding cognitive functions,singing some biological explanations movement control or cognition.
These physiological discoveries represent a challenge to the conceptual assumptions of law, often “hundreds of years old”, as B. Garland.Ad today neuroscience uses instruments suitable to measure internal blood flow brain area and techniques for analysing brain electrical activity, including Neuroimaging, Computer Tomography (TM) , Functional Magnetic Resonance (fMRI), Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT), Positroni Emission Tomography (PET), which will lead to use in the “Ithink it’s a good thing that we’re going to be able to do that,” he said.
The study of the amygdala and the prefrontal regions, can be used in the verification of witness statements and many other applications.
The study of the hippocampus and memory traces, brain fingerprinting and the many discoveries in lie-detection techniques could revolutionise the judicial and crime prevention system.
The legal implications extend to a multitude of fundamentally important issues, from the Permanent Vegetative State to Brain Death,to the improvement/enhancement of neurological (Neuro-enhancement), from curative/replacement treatments (PTSD, ALZHEIMER) to neuropharmacology, from brain scanning to pain-assessment.
By leveraging nanobiochips andbrain imaging, neurotechnology has now enabled it to offer cost-effective and extra-accurate clinical investigations.
Genomics, proteomics, microfluidics, biosimulation and nano image techniques allow the analysis of events at the neuromolecular level.
Nanobiochips and Neuroimaging are also used to develop pharmacological techniques (NEUROCEUTICALS) that can significantly affect the functioning of the central nervous system in the field of neurodegenerative diseases ( Parkinson’s syndrome)
Thus, through the administration of neuroceuticals,you can achieve emotional stability, cognitive clarity and expansion of sensory experiences, and example title:
- Cogniceuticals that amplify decision-making, learning and memorization processes.
- Emoticeuticals that intervene on the psycho-emotional dimension and affect feelings moods awareness, motivations.
- Sensoceuticals to restore or expand sensory abilities and then feel you smell taste and feel. even in different ways… to this day unknown.
This technological advance has led to a very important ethical and legal debate on human enhancement, which in reality unites all life sciences, just think of the biomechanical grafts of limbs or organs(cyborgs)that have application of restorative and regenerative medicine, but enhancementapplications are already being found.
The other great techno-scientific strand of the application of cognitive neuroscience is that ofBrain-Computer-Interface (BCI).
With these connections and the IoT, the Brain-Machine-Web Interfacesits, resulting in the creation of cyborgs, cybernetic and bionic organisms,in which computers and mechatronic devices are connected and implanted in the human organism, connected to the brain and network.
This opens the way for opportunities for inclusion in the social life of people suffering from disabling diseases, such as those involving partial or total paralysis of the body, but with intact brain function.
Such technological advancement may lead to an improvement in living conditions and also the possibility of legally relevant expressions of will (think of the conclusion of contracts).
Neurofeedback therapy, neurostimulation,neural control of activation mechanisms, can allow communication and movement to subjects for which it would be otherwise impossible.
However, a number of issues arise, related to the spatial extension of extra-body individuality and privacy (privacy and security) whose scopes must necessarily be redefined.
The search field of Brain-Machine and Brain-Machine-Web (BCI) connections is growing rapidly and the development of various applications on the human body requires a careful legal-ethical-economic analysis,with a view to risk management and reputational management, as well as macrosystem effects on a social and ecosystem scale.
Here are some issues on which accurate specialist care undoubtedly plays a critical role in determining the total success or failure of a technology linked to the convergence of neuroscience, electronics, mechanics and computing:
- The right to privacy and data protection
- The protection and safety of individuals whose mind is subjected to suppression/stimulation of desired and unwanted impulses (cybersecurity)
- Redefining personality and ownership of the mind
- Physical and mental enhancement
- Resulting social stratification
- Ability to act, reflections on Informed Consent
We offer advice for ethical (bioethical) and economic (bioethics) legal (bioethics) profiles, both for research institutions involved in this fundamental branch of neuroscience,and for the companies and startups involved development and applications of these frontier technologies.
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